Article 2216

Title of the article



Gulyakov Alexander Dmitrievich, Candidate of juridical sciences, associate professor, Rector of Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia),

Index UDK





Background. The traditional theory of federalism originated in 17–18th centuries, but it has become more sophisticated after being put into practice. Alexis de Tockqueville was the first to demonstrate peculiarities and advantages of federalism for Europeans with USA being an example. German authors, worried with unification of their country, concentrated on the problem of state sovereignty and the possibility of its division between the center and subnational units. Foreign researchers after the Second World War delved into more complex schemes explaning federalism from different angles. But too broad definitions (for example by D. Elazar) linking this phenomena with not less than human relations are idealistic.
Matherials and methods. As federalist studies has demonstrated, the formal constitutional method is too static to be in full accordance with real life. State studying, which traces historical roots and evolution of federalism, seems to be more fruitful. It’s necessary to perceive that only modernization has opened the road to federalist practice. By comparing different historical and regional types of federalism we may understand the logic of its evolution.
Results. Weak attempts of intra-state cooperation could be seen in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. The most famous were the Holy German Empire and the United Provinces of Netherlands. The pioneering countries with English-speaking settlers in the New World occurred to be more prepared for creation of federative states. Switzerland in the heart of Europe surrounded by high mountains has shown long and careful evolution to the federative entity.
Conclusions. Deep comparative studies are necessary for the research progress. There should be a balance in comparison of similarities and differences. It’s natural to compare the Russian state experience, with the German and the Austrian ones, because all these federative states have been formed from the 'top'. But we should consider more polar differences between Russia and the pioneering countries such as USA, Canada. And the comparison of our country with local, community federalism in Switzerland and post-colonial, super-centralized federalism in India is also useful.

Key words

theory of federalism, constitutional approach to federalism, state studying method in the research of federalism, history of federalism, comparative federalism.

Download PDF

1. Gorenberg M. Teoriya soyuznogo gosudarstva v trudakh sovremennykh publitsistov Germanii [The theory of faderal state in works by contemporary publicists from Ger-many]. Saint-Petersburg, 1891.
2. Tokvil' A. Demokratiya v Amerike [Deocracy in America]. Moscow, 1992.
3. Geymbukh N. G. Konstitutsionno-pravovoe voploshchenie idei nemetskogo edinstva [Constitutional-legal implementation of concepts of German unity]. Tomsk, 2009.
4. Yashchenko A. Teoriya federalizma. Opyt sinteticheskoy teorii prava i gosudarstva [The theory of federalism. The experience of the synthetic theory of law and state]. Yurev, 1912.
5. Turovskiy R. F. Politicheskaya regionalistika [Political regional studies]. Available at: http:/ sitemap/page_255php.
6. Elazar D. American Federalism: A View from the States. New York, 1966.
7. Elazar D. The Federal Polity. New Brunswick, N. J., 1974.
8. Elazar D. Exploring Federalism. Tuscaloosa, 1987.
9. Elazar D. Reflections Paper. 1994, no. 13 (I).
10. Konyukhova I. A. Sovremennyy rossiyskiy federalizm i mirovoy opyt: Itogi stanovleniya i perspektivy razvitiya [The modern Russian federalism and the world experience: formation results and development prospects]. Moscow, 2004.
11. Kremyanskaya E. Teoriya i praktika federalizma: sravnitel'no-pravovoe issledovanie: monogr. [The theory and practice of federalism]. Moscow, 2015.
12. Dobrynin N. M. Novyy federalizm: model' budushchego gosudarstvennogo ustroystva Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The new federalism: a model of future state system of the Rus-sian Federation]. Novosibirsk, 2003.
13.Dobrynin N. M. Rossiyskiy federalizm: problemy i perspektivy [Russian federalism: problems and prospects]. 2003, no. 11.
14. Kurilkina O. A., Labygina A. V., Mamychev A. Yu. et al. Problemy federalizma i fede-ral'noy pravovoy politiki v sovremennoy Rossii: monogr. [Problems of federalism and federal legal policy in modern Russia: monograph]. Moscow, 2013.
15. Federalizm: teoriya i istoriya razvitiya (sravnitel'no-pravovoy analiz): ucheb. posobie [Federalism: the theory and history of development (a comparative-legal analysis): tutorial]. Execut. ed. M. N. Marchenko. Moscow, 2000.
16. Baburin S. N. Mir imperiy: Territoriya gosudarstva i mirovoy poryadok [The world of empires: the theory of statehood and world order]. Saint-Petersburg, 2005.
17. Istoriya yuzhnykh i zapadnykh slavyan [The history of southern and western slavs]. Ed. G. F. Matveev, Z. S. Nenasheva. Moscow, 2008, vol. 1.
18. Anderson P. Rodoslovnaya absolyutistskogo gosudarstva [The pedigree of absolutist state]. Moscow, 2010.
19. Gulyakov A. D., Salomatin A. Yu. Istoriya gosudarstva i prava [The history of state and law]. 2016, no. 4.
20. Salomatin A. Yu. Vsemirnaya istoriya gosudarstva i gosudarstvennogo upravleniya [The world history of state and public administration]. Moscow, 2013.
21. Gulyakov A. D. Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn' [The policy of law and legal life]. 2016, no. 1.
22. Gulyakov A. D., Salomatin A. Yu. Stanovlenie i razvitie federativnykh gosudarstv v Severnoy Amerike, Evrope i Rossii [Formation and development of federative states in North America, Europe and Russia]. Penza, 2015.
23. Pantin V. I., Lapkin V. V. Polis. 2015, no. 5.
24. Drobizheva L. M., Ryzhova S. V. Polis. 2015, no. 5.
25. Dannemann G. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law. Ed. by M. Reimann, R. Zimmermann. Oxford; New York, 2008.


Дата создания: 17.11.2016 08:54
Дата обновления: 17.11.2016 09:23